Women and Criminal Justice: Women and Victimization

It is reported that about 25 percent of women in college will account some form of victimization in their learning institution with sexual violence noted to be the most common act of offense to women. The realization that women are still being harassed in the twenty-first century in the various settings is thus a major motivator for the need to examine the trends in victimization, which can be used in the institution of measures to prevent the risk factors. The section of the topic is, however, based on the realization that recently, many other effects have been reported among women that are beyond the mostly cited stress and social challenges that abused women have to overcome. A new trend has been reported in that when women become victims of harassment, there is a likelihood that they will end up participating in criminal activities because of the psychological stressors that they are forced to overcome.

The foundation for settling on the topic was from the quoted cases of women becoming victims of crime and as a result of feeling socially traumatized that they end up engaging in crime. The theme of the paper is particularly relevant because it builds on the learned concepts throughout the semester on the subject of women and criminal justice. The topic relates females as offenders from the perspective that while they could be thought of as stigmatized being, women have ended up engaging in criminal activities as a statement of the oppression that is subjected to them.

The Explanation of Women Victimization and Criminal Activities

Violent childhood and adult experiences especially regarding physical abuse have been identified to be one of the leading causes of women engaging in crime. The effect can be described by the review of the principle of control theory, which establishes that weak social bonds have been identified to be the cause of a majority of criminal activities. Usually, the motivation for batterers is to inflict both physical and emotional pain on their victims, with the outcome mainly involving social isolation. Relating the effect of loneliness and depression that results from the assault incidences is thus a suitable reason to describe the rising incidences of criminal activities perpetrated by women. The findings that have been established on the role of social and other traditional theories has been backed by the finding that like males, women tend to come from backgrounds that are associated with poor education, low income and most importantly, a minority status. The effect of feeling stigmatized and the consequence of being a social minor thus justifies the reason for female participation in crime following prior exposures to oppressive and discriminative behavior.

Women as Offenders

Early exposure to physical abuse has explicitly been recognized to be a huge factor in causing a woman to feel the desire of expressing her pain through crime. According to Lake, this effect classifies to be a major player in a majority of the female crimes especially when the abuse was from the domestic setting. Schwartz and Steffensmeier highlight that the trends of crime for both sexes has been on the rise since the 1960s. However, offense rates for women have shifted towards participating in minor crimes as opposed to the males who tend to be associated with the heinous misconducts. While men tend to account for 29 percent of crimes related to liquor laws and drug abuse, women only accounted for an average of 15 percent. The realization that women have increasingly been involved in criminal activities due to being sexually harassed has, however, been a significant subject with reports indicating women tend to engage in gangs and substance abuse.

One of the ways that harassed women cover for the oppression subjected to them has been through the formation of gangs. While ganging was previously an activity practiced by males, recent data has shown that females are now taking up roles as cheerleaders and camp followers. Other than the secondary roles, there have also been notable cases of women acting as male gang informants which stresses the role that they play even in criminal situations. In a majority of the cases interviewing of the female participant in the gang-related activities has shown that subjects tend to engage in the activities as a result of gender, race, and discrimination based on social class.

The other trend that victimized women have been reported to follow later in life is engagement in drug dependency and substance abuse, with related reports indicating a direct correlation to minor crimes. As a result of feeling alienated in the society, reports have shown that women are more likely to participate on burglary and robbery incidents due to being heavily under the influence. The outcome of this factor is, however, due to a complicated interplay of depression, a lack of income0generating venture, and the effect of acting under influence, which can be argued to be the ultimate cause of criminal behavior.

The Past, Present, and the Future

Women and victimization that leads to criminal behavior is a subject that has only gained interest in recent times. While oppression was rampant in the past, I think that there were not many reports of the correlational effect of engaging in criminal activities because many women would choose not to engage in any controversial behavior because of the likelihood of being victimized more. The present state is the manifestation of women trying to come out of the comfort zone following being oppressed, which could be attributed to women empowerment that is common in the current generation. Heading into the future, it is projected that there will be more adverse and rampant incidences because, with the growth in technology, social ties are being lost, which further breaks social bonds. The involvement of women in crime is thus a critical subject that needs urgent intervention to salvage the situation especially following report that many women are being reported in


The topic of women and victimization is a significant topic that is worth researching based on the recent correlation that has been established linking women to crime due to prior incidences of oppression. Two of the primary criminal activities that women have being reported to engage have been substance abuse and being involved in gangs that commit crimes. Theoretically, the explanation for the trend is based in the understanding of the social theory that underscores that the effect of joining in crime is augmented when the subject has a poor foundation in their social bonds and domestic foundation. With the rising incidences in the present as opposed to the past, it is suggested that unless efforts are instituted to curb the effect, it is anticipated that there will be more grave outcomes in the future.

Child Psychology

Correlation between Child Abuse, Maltreatment, and Violence Offenses

It is a sad point to note that the number of youths currently involved in the counseling departments is increasing. What makes this point more painful and even much more distressing is the fact that among these youths, at least one has already had a prior experience with either violent and delinquent behaviors, emotional disturbances, or learning difficulty. This comes from the fact that these forms of negative social habits are in a way directly linked to the type of experience that these youths had during their childhood.

However, in as much as these kinds of discomfort are reported at elevating numbers each time in the juvenile system as well as in the social environments of individual interactions, these is still no good understanding and correlation of these children’s states to the delinquencies reported. In this essay, I am going to examine and identify some of the major points of linkages between the child abuse, maltreatment, and psychological stress to the delinquencies and other violent behaviors.

Child Abuse and Violent Behavior

There are some difficulties and challenges in handling the youths and adolescents in the counseling courts and in the youth-caring systems. These issues are observed generally in those individuals coming from the families that have co-morbid difficulties. Therefore, this already unmasks to us strong evidence that the criminal behaviors reported among these youths arise from the childhood mishandlings and devastations.

This document mainly focuses on the negative social outcomes for the children who underwent violence and maltreatment. This essay will also give a partial coverage on the areas of juvenile justice literature and social work so as to reveal more compacted and reasonable arguments and correlation with the malpractices to the victims.

The saddening experiences and the disabilities encountered are strongly tied to the resultant violent and delinquent behaviors and characters that later arise in these individuals. Different social problems often set the individual to some kind of the offending recidivism cycle, a negative outcome with serious repercussions, which is linked to child and adolescent crisis, and then – to delinquency. It is a possible risk in the learning institutions, with a few cases reported though. However, the fact that only few cases have been reported does not really have ability to do away with the correlation patterns, and so there must be some other factors that do make contributions, especially as environmental agents.

The first example case that I want to talk about is the child sexual abuse. This has been reported in several communities globally. These children have their rights, were exposed to violent environment for the abuse of their sexual rights as well psychological all these cases of the sexual assaults, the most common resultant outcome witnessed in their youthful stages have been fear and a general paranoid response.

Meaning that if a child or even an adolescent individual does present any of such difficulties, then it most probable that they will experience at least one of the resultant negative social problems. The fear for social gathering have also been common.

Some researchers explain that this could be due to the post insult traumatization. There have been exceptional cases though. Some of these children ended with totally parallel features. The basis of the difference encountered is likely a result of psychological and personality differences. However, there is a need for more research so as establish the exact explanation behind these opposing results.  In spite of these, there are a number of reasons that might give some weak of such differences. It is clear that a lot of negative impacts have been linked to the childhood miserable states, suffering and neglect

The second maltreatment that has been of common state is the bullying and oppressive treatments which has been presented over a long time.  In almost all cases, these individuals have been spotted under very violent conditions. At youthful stages, they have shown intolerable anger, rage as well as hatred. And the worst cases ever reported in the juvenile systems are attempt of suicide. It is therefore, very likely that they have been of rife of suicidal thoughts. However, there is no research that has ever indicated that. This case has been of the same outcome to those children who have been exposed to the domestic violence.

Exposure to community violence has been of the same result as exposure to the domestic violence. They seem to instill in these victims the same magnitude of mental effect. Scientific evidence has revealed that the paradigm of neural rearrangement in a child’s brain can be linked to some particular behavioral characteristics at youthful stage and even adult stages.

Isolation has been another heavy issue in the idea of children mistreatments. The act of separation of the children from their parents has also lead to the development of negative behaviors among the youths. The juvenile courts have experienced cases of mood swing, poor petite and ease of anger among these people. Uncontrollable irritability, anger and poor memory have been mentioned as some of the common outcome in these individuals at youthful stages.

The emergence of such negative social behaviors among the youths and adolescent a post experience results is linked to the negative consequences. To begin with, there is a particular pattern in which everyone’s brain functions. Scientists have given elaborate pictures of how the brain develops, matures until it comes to a state that is not very east to change. Scholars in human psychology and neurological sciences have explained that the human brains gradually develops until it reaches the twenties after which there can be hardly sported major neurological changes and patterns. At such stages, the life-long experiences manifest massively as characters, and a change becomes difficult. Therefore, in the reasoning of a child maltreatment and victimizations, it is a point to argue that these individuals have already gathered the best sides of information from the human suffering and so, the only reason why they must not remain friends with the societal peace is their conflict and negative mental makeup. This gives some explanation on why they commonly present negative behaviors, socially unfit and generally violent.

To give the second reason, their brain lost the chance to capture important and motivating feelings while at the most rapid stage of growth. They never knew joy, excitements, pleasure or any kind of comfort. They lived like wild animals, suffered cold, hunger, humiliation of all sorts and the best memory their brain could capture for the entire life expertise is all negative, harmful and scary. When they grow into youths, they seem to have no important reason for jovial life, their reasoning gets restricted and limited and so their inner feelings becomes the feeder source of all their reasoning. Unfortunately, their feelings have been completely biased to the negative side. They are often introverts.

And how does the maltreatment victimization come about? Maltreatment victimization of children and adolescents comprises an array of negative treatments and handling; these could in the form of from physical assaults, sexual harassments, emotional torcher or some other kinds of psychological tease and even neglect. These types of maltreatment have been reported to the main reasons for such serious and long lasting undesirable effects in the largest population of these victims. These experiences are recorded in the brain for, the entire lifespan, and therefore they remain as chronic trauma.

There has been a strong linkage of between the mental illnesses to the delinquencies. This correlation was originally stated in the result of some studies which indicated that these youthful offenders who had undergone maltreatments have a much higher chance of undergoing arrest as compared with their fellows who had not undergone the same types of experiences. And even within courts, they have been reported to be under much stronger security check and supervisions than their other fellows. These point therefore vibrantly suggested that maltreatment is not only a contributing factor in mental health but also a leading reason for the delinquencies. Further research have emphasized that repeated maltreatment holds the main reason for the impacts revealed in the offending behaviors in youths.

Another rampant outcome is deterioration of the victims’ mental health and then, the indulgence into the drugs and substance abuse problems. Another successive consequence of such negative behavior is also seen presenting in youths as stress disorders and depressions. Depression is in fact spreading rapidly among these groups of people. Mention sexual abuse, neglect by friends and family members among other nasty forms of maltreatments have been leading agents of stress disorders, anxiety syndromes among other serious mental illnesses. In the end result, there are resultant negative youthful indecent behaviors, delinquencies and other violent-related malpractices and offenses.

Another significant problem that comes up as a result of such maltreatments is school and learning difficulties among the victims who record such experiences of maltreatments while at their childhood and adolescents stages. Research has indicated a convincing results in these individuals’ performance in both the basic school activities as well as secondary classwork duties.  And in whatever, the case of malpractices, there is an awaiting negative impact.

Any form of malpractice that a child faces in their daily experiences, often gets recorded in their memory and eventually becomes internalized in their daily activities and duties. The painful side of this point is that, these negative experiences often stay calm and undetected until the victim reaches the late stages of development when they start to show up. These negative nasty practices, violations, assaults and mishandlings all build up to series of negative consequences that only get to be seen in the victim at twenties.  At such stages victimization history start to reveal several other negative features in successive manner. Some of the commonly reported cases include learning disabilities, mental disturbances, and more importantly, violence and delinquencies.