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Opinions Woman

Women Rights and Globalization. Woman’s Opinion

Currently, the economic inequality and tourism sex crisis has hit areas that seemed sensitive giving people an immoral devotion of how things operate. For instance, women are faced with this issues when diminished to certain levels by men who think money makes them superior. Evidently, I want to present a personal experience of the above notions through my various travels and indulgence with people of different cultures and social classes. Moreover, the global and social scene seems to have a mediocre social perspective on gender sensitive topics, more so in addressing discrimination of women’s rights and poverty in third world countries.

During my early years in school, my parents worked as diplomats, and I was able to travel to certain parts of the world, each of them with a different aspect of social alienation. For instance, during my travel to Africa, I was able to visit Kenya which has its most population living below the poverty line; nonetheless, there are still wealthy individuals and beautiful sceneries as we were able to stay in exotic hotels, Apparently, this is because much of the country’s wealth is dependent on tourism. During my visit, I noted a high level of poverty in the country’s suburbs with people living below a dollar a day regarding expenditure. In most parts, I could notice tourist from other countries seemingly concerned as they could take lots of pictures of the beautiful wildlife to the poor people shelters in the villages. I always questioned what could be the use of these pictures. Moreover, the continued tourism and pictures could have already changed the situation of the villagers, but this was not the case. The tourists only enjoyed the thriving wildlife and taking pictures, but most of them did not offer any assistance them but merely enjoyed their resources. Evidently, they just visited took pictures, but an amicable solution is what the people needed rather than just enjoying their culture without any help.

Notably, prostitution has been evident in the world for centuries, and with thriving industry such as the one in Saudi Arabia, there are various discussions on the legitimacy of the business. Countries such as Netherlands have already legalized prostitutions and people visit the country specifically to explore this market. Though it is deemed as morally incorrect among the social scene, it has seemingly saved the lives of these commercial sex workers in that country. Moreover, the legality of the profession is based on notions and perception of society, for instance, the religious activist has doomed it as an act of evil and a major cause of immorality in the world, coming from a Jewish household I stand no chance in opposing this explanation. Moreover, it is also placed in a professional job if put under scrutiny to ensure that those engaging in the act are put free of harm and the governments collect revenues from it (Abel and Taina). The campaigners also argue on the basis of choices that prostitution is based on one’s preference such as choice of taking a certain bar of chocolate despite the long-term health effects such as obesity.

In addition, as a freshman at Binghamton University in New York, I am focused to study notions of societies’ view on women and their negative notions on our education. Moreover, I am focused to ensure that I inform more girls on the continuing world issues and join programs on women empowerment on globalization to end poverty and sex work that is evident due to tourism. Evidently, through my various travels and association in different schools, I have witnessed lots of perception on poor people, women, and children being in situations inhumane and worse compared to the social aspects we witness in the U.S. Through my experience, I am determined to make a change and inform others so as to have a fair world.

Gender and economic inequalities in tourism
“Sex tourism requires Third World women to be economically desperate enough to enter into prostitution; having done so it is made difficult to leave. The other side of the equation requires men from affluent societies to imagine certain women, usually women of colour, to be more available and submissive than women in their own countries. Finally, the industry depends on an alliance between local governments in search of foreign currency and local foreign business willing to invest in sexualised travel”.

Evidently, tourism prostitution has held significance in the contemporary society, a lot of tourists are taking trips the foreign countries for the need of commercial sex despite tourism being a major player in the world economy. Commercial sex has remained a vividly researched industry, it mainly lie’s in the third world countries with economic inequalities and low employment levels for women thus their engagement in the sex trade. In this case, this paper presents the ordeal and situations that these women go through in perceptive of family, society and personal their fate in the hands of these sex motivated tourists. However, if the local governments provide better incentives on labor and provide employment opportunities, these women would have better social status and work on well-paying jobs not be in the humiliating aspect of the shaming business.

Firstly, the first global evidence of tourism prostitution started in South East Asia but is tremendously growing to other parts of the world from, Bangkok to African countries such as Kenya. Most of these countries have exhibited extreme levels of poverty thus the tourists taking advantage of the women there. However, there have been questions arising on the sustainability of these industries, some countries such as Costa Rica have already legalized the trade, this move has to raise queries whether it ethical or it’s just a way of economic development. Moreover with the industries’ main clients as men and the product of women have raised equality issues, in this case, set tourism should be discussed and considered by governments based on all legal and health matters to ensure the safety of its citizens.

Notably, despite the situation the women are prescribed through some of the sex tourisms, there is still another group of women playing ethical roles in the tourism industry. For instance, there is the issue of underpaid beach workers, attendants and hotel maids whose work is to cater for the well-being of the tourists but receive low pay; these women do this in seek of better livelihoods and only as a tourist is when you notice the orderly that they go through. For instance, in Portugal, they work in factories making garments that are used for the European fashion market and the women who wear them show up later in their beaches as a tourist. Such situations only depict the inequality and exploitation that the women have to endure to earn a living, moreover such situation bring disparities between women tourists and the locals who sometimes see them as mere creatures of privilege as they all work equally hard.

In addition, much of the tourism industry is evidently gendered for instance, since the olden times men were the ones considered as travelers., For instance, they were allowed to go the city and look for work, go the navy and even go for explorations but in any case when a woman did these it was deemed as immoral or she was told that she had despised family, this notion is exemplified to the tourism sector where most of the tourism are men, and the attendant of this industry remain as local women. Moreover, the women remain as primary players in the industry through their work in local hotels and beaches, in conclusion, tourisms continues to develop inequality in bases or revenue and system of governance promoting the financially sound and the political stable while peasants remain objects of the industry.

Categories
Psychology Society

Long Term Impact of Dating Violence

Adolescent dating violence (ADV) is significantly widespread with both short term and long term severe impacts. Many teenagers fail to report this violence due to the fear. It is said that about 2-9% of male and 4-20% of female teens have at one point experienced sexual or physical abuse from their partner in the US. ADV is linked to health compromises and particularly drugs and alcohol usage or both. ADV is also associated with eating disorders, anxiety and depression, low self-esteem, sexual risks and suicidal attempts among the adolescents. Many studies have been done to address ADV but face a limitation of determining the causal relationship between the variables or establishment of temporality. Few of the researchers have devoted into investigating the long-term impact of Adolescent dating violence. A study was done on female college students aimed at identifying the sexual victimization resulting from ADV. The weakness of the research was that it did not investigate on men and again did not consider physical violence. In another study that aimed at finding out the physical victimization caused by a partner, the long-term effect of the violence was not put into consideration. Therefore, this necessitated the need of finding out the long-term impact of ADV on psychological health and the individual’s behavior and examination of ADV long term impact on an individual’s health.

Methodology of Study

  1. Study Design and Setting

In this study done by Diann et al., data was obtained from EAT project. The study sought to address the epidemiological factors of the study subjects. In this case, the data on weight- associated factors with two waves was collected with 5 years apart in adolescents. Also, the eating behaviors of the adolescents were researched. The first wave was done in 1999 and the second one in 2004. The average age of the teens was 20.4 years with a corresponding standard deviation of 0.8. The EAT project participants came from the urban and suburb high schools and public middle. The area of study was Minnesota.

  1. Participants

The participants were diverse in their races, ages, the socioeconomic status, and body mass index. During the first wave of the study, there was the completion of the Project EAT study. Anthropometric weight and height measures were noted. An 81.5% was the reported response rate of the participants in the wave 1. After completing the first wave of the study; information consent was obtained, and possible revisions were done for wave 2 approval. Some factors were added to the second wave to help in exploring interest issues in the adolescents who were quite older and among the factors were prone to violence from a dating partner. The collection of data from wave 2 was between the periods of April 2003 – June 2004. 561 participants who translated to 18.2% were lost from the first wave. The remaining 2513 were used for the study in the wave 2. 1516 of these participants were youth comprising of 54% females and 46% male. They competed for questions on ADV. There was an assessment of ethical background of the participants to help in the adequate analysis due to variation in some outcome interests across different ethics.

Measures

Evaluation of ADV was based on two questions. The first one sought to answer any physical violence encountered by the participants while the second attempted to answer the sexual violence. There was a combination of the sexual and physical violence as some of the cells were reported to be smaller for separation of the analysis. The participants who had responded yes to both for sexual and physical abuse were excluded from further analysis of ascertaining the occurrence ADV before the second wave dependent variables. The participants were questioned of their extreme weight-controlling behaviors, pills taking and it they had encountered any vomiting experience. Also, they were asked if they had taken diuretics and laxatives water pills. The participants who reported at least to have used one were considered to be users of extreme weight-controlling behaviors. In the evaluation of binge eating among the participants, they answered a close ended question on whether they had at one point eaten a lot of food in a short time. Also the questions on suicidal thoughts, the participants were asked if they had ever thought of killing themselves.

The outcomes of the wave 2 study were tabled. Measurement of substance abuse was done using the 5 point scale and they were asked to mark the frequency of using the drugs. Assessment of the body dissatisfaction was done with Pingitore’s scale. It involved evaluation of 10 body parts combination as a mean composite score with high scores translating to greater body satisfaction. On the other hand, the individual’s self-esteem was measured using Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale with 6 items.  The internal reliability estimate of the scale was 0.83 during the second wave ranging from 6-24. From this, higher self-esteem was shown by high scores. The depressive symptoms were evaluated using Davies20 and Kandel scales. The scale range was 6-18 with high scores indicating severe moods of depression.

xData analysis

Chi-square measure of associations was utilized in the comparison of the wave 2 prevalence of psychological and behavioral health risks in the adolescents. Estimation of the Logistic regression model was done, and the corresponding odds for every youth behavior with ADV against those without ADV were found. The control of wave 1 relevant behavior reported was crucial for the prediction of uptake or worsening of behavior after the experience with ADV. In all the analysis, there was a stratification of the test variables by sex and SAS software was used in the analysis.

Results

In the study, it was reported that 102 females and 23 males’ participants indicated ADV greater than in the previous year. No significant variations were observed in ADV by socio-economic status and race. Wave I analysis adjustment outcome was that more females and males who reported more cigarette smoking at the second wave and attempted suicide in the previous year were more in ADV participants than in those with no ADV. Besides, ADV was found to have a fundamental association with suicidal ideation and binge eating mainly in male participants. It was also found that marijuana smoking was prevalence in ADV participants and higher depressive symptoms reported among females. Furthermore, it was indicated that in the whole sample 31.6% female respondents and 14.7% male respondents were grouped as highly susceptible to the 3 of the 10 behavioral conditions evaluated. On the other hand, ADV was reported to be related to higher risk status of the female and male respondents in a bivariate analysis. In this regard 50.0% females and 30.4% males who were found to have experienced ADV were susceptible to three health risk factors as oppose to 27.4% and 13.1% of those without ADV. After wave one adjustment for high-risk status, the relationship of ADV and high risk at the second wave remained to be statistically significant in females participants, but it was not in male respondents.

Discussion

The study reported that ADV is a non-specific risk factor for both psychological and behavioral health hazards. The findings were consistent with numerous cross-sectional researches which indicate that individuals with ADV also show multiple health symptoms. Thus the evaluation, however, is built on the extant literature of cross-sectional analysis by the utilization of data from wave 2 longitudinal research. Hence providing an allowance for the adjustment of the outcome measures during wave 1 in the determination of whether there was worsening or proceeding of ADV health risks.  The study illustrated vicious perpetuations of the psychological behaviors and violence which reciprocate to maintain themselves. Besides, the study added to the extant literature of developmental index in the calculation of the nonspecific dangers placed in youths. The calculated index increases the usefulness of the clinic concerning the findings as there is provision of opportunity to the individuals that have encountered ADV to be not “typecast” with the probability of developing a certain complication. Also for people struggling with a certain challenge, assumptions should not be made that they are subject to historical abuse.

The implications of this study are that ADV is reported to have an impact on the health of an individual.  It increases the risk of developing complications, and this raises concerns. Persons who are in the youth caring roles have to be screened for serious dating situation. It is recommended that ways of screening dating situations that are abusive in the teenagers and the practices of screening have to be designed in the quest for higher disclosure levels. Additionally, while the selection process is done, the confidentiality, safety and the security of the subjects is paramount. This will lead to lower levels of the health risks. Many of the adolescents do not seek help. It is reported that only 44% female and 32% male who encounter ADV find assistance while the rest keep it o themselves. It is vital for them to try and contribute to the reduction of the health risks that result from ADV. The study findings indicated that there is a relationship between ADV and the diverse problematic behaviors. Also it was related to the psychological health of the individuals and hence the study pointed out the need of addressing ADV among the adolescents. Interventions directed towards ADV and its impact on individuals has to be instituted.