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Psychology Society

Long Term Impact of Dating Violence

Adolescent dating violence (ADV) is significantly widespread with both short term and long term severe impacts. Many teenagers fail to report this violence due to the fear. It is said that about 2-9% of male and 4-20% of female teens have at one point experienced sexual or physical abuse from their partner in the US. ADV is linked to health compromises and particularly drugs and alcohol usage or both. ADV is also associated with eating disorders, anxiety and depression, low self-esteem, sexual risks and suicidal attempts among the adolescents. Many studies have been done to address ADV but face a limitation of determining the causal relationship between the variables or establishment of temporality. Few of the researchers have devoted into investigating the long-term impact of Adolescent dating violence. A study was done on female college students aimed at identifying the sexual victimization resulting from ADV. The weakness of the research was that it did not investigate on men and again did not consider physical violence. In another study that aimed at finding out the physical victimization caused by a partner, the long-term effect of the violence was not put into consideration. Therefore, this necessitated the need of finding out the long-term impact of ADV on psychological health and the individual’s behavior and examination of ADV long term impact on an individual’s health.

Methodology of Study

  1. Study Design and Setting

In this study done by Diann et al., data was obtained from EAT project. The study sought to address the epidemiological factors of the study subjects. In this case, the data on weight- associated factors with two waves was collected with 5 years apart in adolescents. Also, the eating behaviors of the adolescents were researched. The first wave was done in 1999 and the second one in 2004. The average age of the teens was 20.4 years with a corresponding standard deviation of 0.8. The EAT project participants came from the urban and suburb high schools and public middle. The area of study was Minnesota.

  1. Participants

The participants were diverse in their races, ages, the socioeconomic status, and body mass index. During the first wave of the study, there was the completion of the Project EAT study. Anthropometric weight and height measures were noted. An 81.5% was the reported response rate of the participants in the wave 1. After completing the first wave of the study; information consent was obtained, and possible revisions were done for wave 2 approval. Some factors were added to the second wave to help in exploring interest issues in the adolescents who were quite older and among the factors were prone to violence from a dating partner. The collection of data from wave 2 was between the periods of April 2003 – June 2004. 561 participants who translated to 18.2% were lost from the first wave. The remaining 2513 were used for the study in the wave 2. 1516 of these participants were youth comprising of 54% females and 46% male. They competed for questions on ADV. There was an assessment of ethical background of the participants to help in the adequate analysis due to variation in some outcome interests across different ethics.

Measures

Evaluation of ADV was based on two questions. The first one sought to answer any physical violence encountered by the participants while the second attempted to answer the sexual violence. There was a combination of the sexual and physical violence as some of the cells were reported to be smaller for separation of the analysis. The participants who had responded yes to both for sexual and physical abuse were excluded from further analysis of ascertaining the occurrence ADV before the second wave dependent variables. The participants were questioned of their extreme weight-controlling behaviors, pills taking and it they had encountered any vomiting experience. Also, they were asked if they had taken diuretics and laxatives water pills. The participants who reported at least to have used one were considered to be users of extreme weight-controlling behaviors. In the evaluation of binge eating among the participants, they answered a close ended question on whether they had at one point eaten a lot of food in a short time. Also the questions on suicidal thoughts, the participants were asked if they had ever thought of killing themselves.

The outcomes of the wave 2 study were tabled. Measurement of substance abuse was done using the 5 point scale and they were asked to mark the frequency of using the drugs. Assessment of the body dissatisfaction was done with Pingitore’s scale. It involved evaluation of 10 body parts combination as a mean composite score with high scores translating to greater body satisfaction. On the other hand, the individual’s self-esteem was measured using Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale with 6 items.  The internal reliability estimate of the scale was 0.83 during the second wave ranging from 6-24. From this, higher self-esteem was shown by high scores. The depressive symptoms were evaluated using Davies20 and Kandel scales. The scale range was 6-18 with high scores indicating severe moods of depression.

xData analysis

Chi-square measure of associations was utilized in the comparison of the wave 2 prevalence of psychological and behavioral health risks in the adolescents. Estimation of the Logistic regression model was done, and the corresponding odds for every youth behavior with ADV against those without ADV were found. The control of wave 1 relevant behavior reported was crucial for the prediction of uptake or worsening of behavior after the experience with ADV. In all the analysis, there was a stratification of the test variables by sex and SAS software was used in the analysis.

Results

In the study, it was reported that 102 females and 23 males’ participants indicated ADV greater than in the previous year. No significant variations were observed in ADV by socio-economic status and race. Wave I analysis adjustment outcome was that more females and males who reported more cigarette smoking at the second wave and attempted suicide in the previous year were more in ADV participants than in those with no ADV. Besides, ADV was found to have a fundamental association with suicidal ideation and binge eating mainly in male participants. It was also found that marijuana smoking was prevalence in ADV participants and higher depressive symptoms reported among females. Furthermore, it was indicated that in the whole sample 31.6% female respondents and 14.7% male respondents were grouped as highly susceptible to the 3 of the 10 behavioral conditions evaluated. On the other hand, ADV was reported to be related to higher risk status of the female and male respondents in a bivariate analysis. In this regard 50.0% females and 30.4% males who were found to have experienced ADV were susceptible to three health risk factors as oppose to 27.4% and 13.1% of those without ADV. After wave one adjustment for high-risk status, the relationship of ADV and high risk at the second wave remained to be statistically significant in females participants, but it was not in male respondents.

Discussion

The study reported that ADV is a non-specific risk factor for both psychological and behavioral health hazards. The findings were consistent with numerous cross-sectional researches which indicate that individuals with ADV also show multiple health symptoms. Thus the evaluation, however, is built on the extant literature of cross-sectional analysis by the utilization of data from wave 2 longitudinal research. Hence providing an allowance for the adjustment of the outcome measures during wave 1 in the determination of whether there was worsening or proceeding of ADV health risks.  The study illustrated vicious perpetuations of the psychological behaviors and violence which reciprocate to maintain themselves. Besides, the study added to the extant literature of developmental index in the calculation of the nonspecific dangers placed in youths. The calculated index increases the usefulness of the clinic concerning the findings as there is provision of opportunity to the individuals that have encountered ADV to be not “typecast” with the probability of developing a certain complication. Also for people struggling with a certain challenge, assumptions should not be made that they are subject to historical abuse.

The implications of this study are that ADV is reported to have an impact on the health of an individual.  It increases the risk of developing complications, and this raises concerns. Persons who are in the youth caring roles have to be screened for serious dating situation. It is recommended that ways of screening dating situations that are abusive in the teenagers and the practices of screening have to be designed in the quest for higher disclosure levels. Additionally, while the selection process is done, the confidentiality, safety and the security of the subjects is paramount. This will lead to lower levels of the health risks. Many of the adolescents do not seek help. It is reported that only 44% female and 32% male who encounter ADV find assistance while the rest keep it o themselves. It is vital for them to try and contribute to the reduction of the health risks that result from ADV. The study findings indicated that there is a relationship between ADV and the diverse problematic behaviors. Also it was related to the psychological health of the individuals and hence the study pointed out the need of addressing ADV among the adolescents. Interventions directed towards ADV and its impact on individuals has to be instituted.

Categories
Child Psychology

Correlation between Child Abuse, Maltreatment, and Violence Offenses

It is a sad point to note that the number of youths currently involved in the counseling departments is increasing. What makes this point more painful and even much more distressing is the fact that among these youths, at least one has already had a prior experience with either violent and delinquent behaviors, emotional disturbances, or learning difficulty. This comes from the fact that these forms of negative social habits are in a way directly linked to the type of experience that these youths had during their childhood.

However, in as much as these kinds of discomfort are reported at elevating numbers each time in the juvenile system as well as in the social environments of individual interactions, these is still no good understanding and correlation of these children’s states to the delinquencies reported. In this essay, I am going to examine and identify some of the major points of linkages between the child abuse, maltreatment, and psychological stress to the delinquencies and other violent behaviors.

Child Abuse and Violent Behavior

There are some difficulties and challenges in handling the youths and adolescents in the counseling courts and in the youth-caring systems. These issues are observed generally in those individuals coming from the families that have co-morbid difficulties. Therefore, this already unmasks to us strong evidence that the criminal behaviors reported among these youths arise from the childhood mishandlings and devastations.

This document mainly focuses on the negative social outcomes for the children who underwent violence and maltreatment. This essay will also give a partial coverage on the areas of juvenile justice literature and social work so as to reveal more compacted and reasonable arguments and correlation with the malpractices to the victims.

The saddening experiences and the disabilities encountered are strongly tied to the resultant violent and delinquent behaviors and characters that later arise in these individuals. Different social problems often set the individual to some kind of the offending recidivism cycle, a negative outcome with serious repercussions, which is linked to child and adolescent crisis, and then – to delinquency. It is a possible risk in the learning institutions, with a few cases reported though. However, the fact that only few cases have been reported does not really have ability to do away with the correlation patterns, and so there must be some other factors that do make contributions, especially as environmental agents.

The first example case that I want to talk about is the child sexual abuse. This has been reported in several communities globally. These children have their rights, were exposed to violent environment for the abuse of their sexual rights as well psychological freedom.in all these cases of the sexual assaults, the most common resultant outcome witnessed in their youthful stages have been fear and a general paranoid response.

Meaning that if a child or even an adolescent individual does present any of such difficulties, then it most probable that they will experience at least one of the resultant negative social problems. The fear for social gathering have also been common.

Some researchers explain that this could be due to the post insult traumatization. There have been exceptional cases though. Some of these children ended with totally parallel features. The basis of the difference encountered is likely a result of psychological and personality differences. However, there is a need for more research so as establish the exact explanation behind these opposing results.  In spite of these, there are a number of reasons that might give some weak of such differences. It is clear that a lot of negative impacts have been linked to the childhood miserable states, suffering and neglect

The second maltreatment that has been of common state is the bullying and oppressive treatments which has been presented over a long time.  In almost all cases, these individuals have been spotted under very violent conditions. At youthful stages, they have shown intolerable anger, rage as well as hatred. And the worst cases ever reported in the juvenile systems are attempt of suicide. It is therefore, very likely that they have been of rife of suicidal thoughts. However, there is no research that has ever indicated that. This case has been of the same outcome to those children who have been exposed to the domestic violence.

Exposure to community violence has been of the same result as exposure to the domestic violence. They seem to instill in these victims the same magnitude of mental effect. Scientific evidence has revealed that the paradigm of neural rearrangement in a child’s brain can be linked to some particular behavioral characteristics at youthful stage and even adult stages.

Isolation has been another heavy issue in the idea of children mistreatments. The act of separation of the children from their parents has also lead to the development of negative behaviors among the youths. The juvenile courts have experienced cases of mood swing, poor petite and ease of anger among these people. Uncontrollable irritability, anger and poor memory have been mentioned as some of the common outcome in these individuals at youthful stages.

The emergence of such negative social behaviors among the youths and adolescent a post experience results is linked to the negative consequences. To begin with, there is a particular pattern in which everyone’s brain functions. Scientists have given elaborate pictures of how the brain develops, matures until it comes to a state that is not very east to change. Scholars in human psychology and neurological sciences have explained that the human brains gradually develops until it reaches the twenties after which there can be hardly sported major neurological changes and patterns. At such stages, the life-long experiences manifest massively as characters, and a change becomes difficult. Therefore, in the reasoning of a child maltreatment and victimizations, it is a point to argue that these individuals have already gathered the best sides of information from the human suffering and so, the only reason why they must not remain friends with the societal peace is their conflict and negative mental makeup. This gives some explanation on why they commonly present negative behaviors, socially unfit and generally violent.

To give the second reason, their brain lost the chance to capture important and motivating feelings while at the most rapid stage of growth. They never knew joy, excitements, pleasure or any kind of comfort. They lived like wild animals, suffered cold, hunger, humiliation of all sorts and the best memory their brain could capture for the entire life expertise is all negative, harmful and scary. When they grow into youths, they seem to have no important reason for jovial life, their reasoning gets restricted and limited and so their inner feelings becomes the feeder source of all their reasoning. Unfortunately, their feelings have been completely biased to the negative side. They are often introverts.

And how does the maltreatment victimization come about? Maltreatment victimization of children and adolescents comprises an array of negative treatments and handling; these could in the form of from physical assaults, sexual harassments, emotional torcher or some other kinds of psychological tease and even neglect. These types of maltreatment have been reported to the main reasons for such serious and long lasting undesirable effects in the largest population of these victims. These experiences are recorded in the brain for, the entire lifespan, and therefore they remain as chronic trauma.

There has been a strong linkage of between the mental illnesses to the delinquencies. This correlation was originally stated in the result of some studies which indicated that these youthful offenders who had undergone maltreatments have a much higher chance of undergoing arrest as compared with their fellows who had not undergone the same types of experiences. And even within courts, they have been reported to be under much stronger security check and supervisions than their other fellows. These point therefore vibrantly suggested that maltreatment is not only a contributing factor in mental health but also a leading reason for the delinquencies. Further research have emphasized that repeated maltreatment holds the main reason for the impacts revealed in the offending behaviors in youths.

Another rampant outcome is deterioration of the victims’ mental health and then, the indulgence into the drugs and substance abuse problems. Another successive consequence of such negative behavior is also seen presenting in youths as stress disorders and depressions. Depression is in fact spreading rapidly among these groups of people. Mention sexual abuse, neglect by friends and family members among other nasty forms of maltreatments have been leading agents of stress disorders, anxiety syndromes among other serious mental illnesses. In the end result, there are resultant negative youthful indecent behaviors, delinquencies and other violent-related malpractices and offenses.

Another significant problem that comes up as a result of such maltreatments is school and learning difficulties among the victims who record such experiences of maltreatments while at their childhood and adolescents stages. Research has indicated a convincing results in these individuals’ performance in both the basic school activities as well as secondary classwork duties.  And in whatever, the case of malpractices, there is an awaiting negative impact.

Any form of malpractice that a child faces in their daily experiences, often gets recorded in their memory and eventually becomes internalized in their daily activities and duties. The painful side of this point is that, these negative experiences often stay calm and undetected until the victim reaches the late stages of development when they start to show up. These negative nasty practices, violations, assaults and mishandlings all build up to series of negative consequences that only get to be seen in the victim at twenties.  At such stages victimization history start to reveal several other negative features in successive manner. Some of the commonly reported cases include learning disabilities, mental disturbances, and more importantly, violence and delinquencies.